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Geng Betty

Friday, 21 October 2016

mcm mana nak interpret t test spss output

As salam...ni pon topik basi ni..tp nak masuk jugak kat sini..sbb bila lama tinggal..mampuih lupa semua..setiap kali sambung blaja, setiap kali repeat balik mende ni..lupa sbb x amalkan..yelah...kita buka guna spss nak beli barang kat tesco kan..hahahahahah...

Ckp pasal t test kan..kompom2 la statistik kan..selalunya org xde masalah nak dptkan result guna spss..pastu..nak interpret...menggagau x reti..spss tu bagi result dlm bentuk nombor..kalau x reti baca maksud nombor tu..xde maknanya...

basicnya t test ada 3 jenis..semua org slalunya dah familiar kan..simple t test..independent t test dan sekor lagi..dependent  test a.k.a paired t test...

sblm syok2 ber t test..pastikan data korg2 ni semuanya normally distributed eh..bell atau gaussian shape..bukan skewed ke kiri atau kanan..graph bentuk m ke v ke..bukan ek..itu kene dipastikan..how ler?? kau buat la NORMALITY TEST guna spss tu haa..... tp kalau tgk dari bacaan varians..pon dah boleh agak juga nanti data kita jenis mcm mana..normal atau not normally distributed...mende varians tu??

Varians tu ialah satu bacaan yang menunjukkan mcm mana data tu disperse/bertabur/berselerak daripada min..eh...sebelum kau kompius..min tu purata..benda yg sama

makanya, kalau nilai varians kau besar..maknnaya lagi jauhla tersebar data2 tu daripada min..so..xde maknalah min itu..maksudnya lagi..sampel kau tu tidak homogenus..bila x homogenus maknanya not normally distributed..so xleh la pakai t test..sbb test ni parametrik, apply utk data normal saje..data tidak normal..silalah pi buat non parametrik test..ngerti??

t test ni guna utk tengok mean difference (perbezaan min)..jadi basicnya ko kene buat descriptive stats dulu..maknanya kene tau berapa mean, mod, varians semua2 tu..yg basic2..sbb ada kalau melalui descriptive stats..sah2 nampak ada mean different yg sagt besar dan jelas..x payah la gedik nak continue dgn t test..t test ni inferential stats..

cth output spss


kau tekan2 spss..keluar table ni..acaner nak baca??
1. ko tgk figure pada sig colume..tu levene test punya reading..sbb nilai levene test tu 0.582 (p>0.05), lebih besar dr significant 0.05..maka varians ada sama...maknanya kita akan amil bacaan equal variance (row atas) utk tgk t test value pulak..
2. kat ni t test value dia 0.14 (p>0.05), kita accept null hypotesis dengan rumusan bahawa tiada perbezaan min antara.....ko sambung ayat tu ikut variable kajian masing2 ye....

kalau mcm ni pulak???
sama aje la...
1. pi tgk kat Levene test bah sig tu..apsal?? sbb figure ni akan tentukan kita akan amik bacaan t test dr row atas atau bawah. Dalam kes ni, nilai sig Levene test ialah p=0.006 (p>0.05)..so..bacaan kita mesti dari row pertama.
2. bacaan t test..nampak 0.000..sah2 la p<0.005, so kita reject null hypothesis..dengan rumusan bahawa wujud perbezaan min antara.....ko sambung ayat tu ikut variable korg.....
perbezaan ini bermakna tau.. meaning...

cth: lelaki skor 50, perempuan skor 54
berapa beza?? 4 je kan...tp bila buat t test,,wujud perbezaan yg signifikan sbbP<0.05, so bermakna wujud perbezaan yg signifikan walau nilai kecil

senang kan!!
dah..kbye!




Sunday, 16 October 2016

Theories of Problem Solving

** teori problem solving dtg dr 2 ni je..yg lain2 tu model..paham takkkkk..jgn kompius lagi
** sbb research focus ialah PS strategy..kita pilih Newell & Simon (1972) hoccay..ingat tuu

Many current views of problem solving, such as described in Keith Holyoak and Robert Morrison'sCambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (2005) or Marsha Lovett's 2002 review of research on problem solving, have their roots in Gestalt theory or information processing theory.
Gestalt Theory. The Gestalt theory of problem solving, described by Karl Duncker (1945) and Max Wertheimer (1959), holds that problem solving occurs with a flash of insight. Richard Mayer (1995) noted that insight occurs when a problem solver moves from a state of not knowing how to solve a problem to knowing how to solve a problem. During insight, problem solvers devise a way of representing the problem that enables solution. Gestalt psychologists offered several ways of conceptualizing what happens during insight: insight involves building a schema in which all the parts fit together, insight involves suddenly reorganizing the visual information so it fits together to solve the problem, insight involves restating a problem's givens or problem goal in a new way that makes the problem easier to solve, insight involves removing mental blocks, and insight involves finding a problem analog (i.e., a similar problem that the problem solver already knows how to solve). Gestalt theory informs educational programs aimed at teaching students how to represent problems.
Information Processing Theory. The information processing theory of problem solving, as described by Allen Newell and Herbert Simon (1972), is based on a humancomputer metaphor in which problem solving involves carrying out a series of mental computations on mental representations. The key components in the theory are as follows: the idea that a problem can be represented as a problem space—a representation of the initial state, goal state, and all possible intervening states—and search heu-ristics—a strategy for moving through the problem space from one state of the problem to the next. The problem begins in the given state, the problem solver applies an operator that generates a new state, and so on until the goal state is reached. For example, a common search heuristic is means-ends analysis, in which the problem solver seeks to apply an operator that will satisfy the problem-solver's current goal; if there is a constraint that blocks the application of the operator, then a goal is set to remove the constraint, and so on. Information processing theory informs educational programs aimed at teaching strategies for solving problems.

source:http://www.education.com/reference/article/problem-solving1/

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